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COVID-19 and Social Security Programmes and Schemes in India
By R. Vasanthagopal

First Published : 2020
ISBN : 9788177085129
Pages : 192
Binding : Hardbound
Size : 5 x 9
Price : US$ 58

With strong macroeconomic fundamentals, Indian economy was well-placed on the trajectory of steady growth rate when the outbreak of coronavirus epidemic, emanating from China, was reported. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic as a pandemic. Normal economic activities around the world came to a screeching halt as governments announced lockdowns to prevent the spread of the disease.

India announced a stringent nationwide lockdown from March 25, 2020. Most of the economic activities in urban areas were halted. However, rural India continued to be normal in view of the exemption from restrictions allowed to farmers to conduct farming operations, including harvesting and transporting their produce to grain markets with the general conditions of face covering, hand hygiene and social distancing.

Sensing the gravity of the situation, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced, on May 12, 2020, a ` 20 lakh crore stimulus package which was about 10 percent of country’s gross domestic product (GDP). It was named as Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan (Self-reliant India Initiative).

The details of the ` 20 lakh crore package were announced by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman in five tranches during the next five consecutive days. Many of the measures announced by the Government were aimed at giving relief to the poor and lower middle class and increasing the pricing power of farmers.

Over the years, India has built an extensive network of social security programmes and schemes, including the flagship Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).

This book explains and examines various social security programmes and schemes of the Government of India for the benefit of vulnerable and disadvantaged sections of the society.

1. COVID-19 and the Indian Economy

2. Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan and the Poor
2.1 First Tranche Focused on MSMEs
2.2 Second Tranche for Poor and the Middle Class
2.3 Third Tranche for Farming Sector
2.4 Fourth Tranche for Privatization of the Economy
2.5 Fifth Tranche Focused on MGNREGS
2.6 Assessment of Aatmanirbhar Bharat Package

3. Poverty and Global Hunger Index (GHI), 2019
3.1 Poverty in India
3.2 Global Hunger Index (GHI), 2019 and India

4. Social Justice and Social Security
4.1 Social Justice
4.2 Social Security

5. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)
5.1 Objectives and Significance of MGNREGS
5.2 Expression of Demand for Employment
5.3 Labour Budget, Inventory of Projects and Perspective Plan
5.4 Work Record, Payment of Wages and Preventing Bogus Muster Rolls
5.5 Vigilance and Transparency
5.6 Other Processes of MGNREGS
5.7 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Software Package (NREGASoft)
5.8 Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT)
5.9 Aadhar Linked Payments (ALP)
5.10 National Electronic Fund Management System (NeFMS)
5.12 Recommendations of NCEUS to Improve MGNREGS
5.13 New Guidelines to Strengthen MGNREGS
5.14 Some Recent Initiatives under MGNREGS
5.15 MGNREGS in Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan
5.16 MGNREGS: Concluding Observations

6. Food and Nutritional Security
6.1 India’s Food Security Policy
6.2 National Food Security Act, 2013
6.3 Forests and Food Security

7. Three-tier Universal Security System for the Poor
7.1 Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojna (PMSBY)
7.2 Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJBY)
7.3 Atal Pension Yojana (APY)

8. Farmer-friendly Schemes
8.1 Doubling Farmers Income by 2022-23
8.2 Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) in Fertiliser Sector
8.3 Remunerative Minimum Support Prices (MSPs)
8.4 Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
8.5 Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)
8.6 Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maandhan Yojana (PMKMY)

9. Cooking Fuel for the Poor
9.1 Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY)
9.2 PAHAL: Direct Benefit Transfer for LPG Consumer (DBTL) Scheme
9.3 Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY)
9.4 Direct Transfer of Cash Subsidy on Public Distribution System (PDS) Kerosene

10. Pradhan Mantri Aawas Yojana (PMAY): Housing for All (HFA)
10.1 PMAY-Urban
10.2 PMAY-Gramin

11. National Health Policy (NHP), 2017 and Ayushman Bharat
11.1 National Health Policy (NHP), 2017
11.2 Ayushman Bharat
11.3 New Initiatives for Maternal and New born Health

12. Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) and Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY)
12.1 What is MUDRA?
12.2 Services Offered by MUDRA
12.3 Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY)
12.4 Purpose of MUDRA Loan
12.5 MUDRA Card
12.6 Development and Promotional Support
12.7 Pricing of MUDRA Loans
12.8 MUDRA in the Budget for 2018-19

13. Start-up India Initiative, 2016
13.1 Meaning of a Start-up
13.2 Start-up India: Features
13.3 Simplification and Handholding
13.4 Funding Support and Incentives
13.5 India Aspiration Fund (IAF) for Start-ups

14. Stand-up India Scheme
14.1 Main Features of Stand-up India Scheme

15. National Skill Development Mission (NSDM), PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), and Other Initiatives
15.1 Launching of Skill India Mission
15.2 Objectives of NSDM
15.3 Institutional Mechanisms
15.4 NSDM Strategy
15.5 Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
15.6 Udaan
15.7 Skill Loan Scheme
15.8 National Apprenticeship Training Scheme (NATS)
15.9 Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY)

16. National Career Service (NCS) Project
16.1 Key Aspects of the NCS Project
16.2 Focus Areas
16.3 Services Offered
16.4 Career Counselling
16.5 Career Centres

17. Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) Mechanism
17.1 Roll Out of the Programme
17.2 Prerequisites for Execution of DBT
17.3 Advantages of DBT
17.4 Disadvantages of DBT

18. Need for Inclusive Growth
18.1 Inclusive Growth Defined
18.2 Strategy for Inclusive Growth
18.3 Target Groups for Inclusive Growth
18.4 Enabling Role of the State for Inclusive Growth



Dr. R. Vasanthagopal is presently Professor and Director of the School of Distance Education, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. He received his Master of Commerce in Finance from the University of Kerala in 1991. Subsequently, he received his M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees from the same university in 1993 and 1998 respectively. He joined the University of Kerala as a full professor in 2013. He is an enthusiastic researcher in the areas of commerce, management, finance and human resources management.

      Dr. Vasanthagopal has supervised the works of 25 Ph.D. and 12 M.Phil. scholars. He has completed four major research projects sponsored by the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi and Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), New Delhi. He has published a large number of research articles in national and international journals of repute. He has participated and presented papers at several national and international conferences at home and abroad. He is a reviewer and editorial board member of about 15 reputed research publications. 

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