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Human, Economic and Environmental

Environment, Climate Change and Disaster Management
By N. Mani

First Published : 2017
ISBN : 9788177084436
Pages : 276
Binding : Hardbound
Size : 7 x 9
Price : US$ 87

Environment has become an important issue in recent years. Environment is characterised by interconnectedness that transcends national/international boundaries and hence international co-operation and national efforts are seminally important to achieve the objectives of (a) equitable access to clean air and water, (b) adaptation and mitigation of climate change, (c) conservation of biodiversity, (d) sustainable forest management and (e) safety in the management of chemicals, wastes and other hazardous substances.

Soon after achieving Independence from Britain in 1947, India embarked on a programme of planned economic development with the launching of First Five Year Plan (1951-56). Ever since, the emphasis has been on removal of poverty and unemployment and all possible instruments of economic policy have been used to achieve the twin objectives. However, the euphoria for rapid economic development has created enormous pressure on country’s natural resources.

   It was in the early 1970s that Government realised the need for environmental protection as an integral part of the industrial policy. Unfortunately, considerable damage had already been done to India’s natural resources by the time preventive measures were taken. Environmental degradation in India has been caused by a variety of social, economic, institutional and technological factors. Rapidly growing population, urbanisation, industrial activities and increasing use of pesticides and fossil fuels have all resulted in considerable deterioration in the quality and sustainability of the environment. There are serious consequences for human health arising through poorly planned developmental activities. Securing the environment is critical for India’s future generations and not just a matter of international commitment.

Similarly, climate change, caused by the building up of green house gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, is a serious global environmental concern. Climate change occupies a high priority on the environmental agenda of international community. Vulnerabilities of India to climate change—in particular impacts on water resources, forests, coastal areas, agriculture, and health—need to be identified and appropriate remedial measures taken. The Paris Agreement, 2015 marks the latest step in the evolution of the UN climate change regime.

Many regions in India are highly vulnerable to natural and other disasters on account of geological conditions. About 60 percent of the landmass is susceptible to earthquakes. Over 8 percent area is prone to floods and 8,000 kilometres of coastline is prone to cyclones. Likewise, 68 percent area is susceptible to drought. All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks. Disasters are no longer limited to natural catastrophes. Man- made emergencies often cause bigger disasters in terms of fatalities and economic losses.

      This book provides an exhaustive account of environmental problems in India and the attending consequences. It explains and examines policies and programmes of the Government of India to arrest environmental degradation and ensure green growth. India’s approach to climate change and disaster mitigation/management is also set forth.

1. Environment and Development: Conflict and Balance
1.1 Environment and Development: The Conflict
1.2 Sustainable Development: The Balancing Act
1.3 Economic Instruments for Promoting Sustainable Development
1.4 International Efforts and Co-operation

2. India’s Environmental Resources and Problems
2.1 Environmental Awareness
2.2 Environmental Resources
2.3 Environmental Problems
2.4 Causes of Environmental Degradation in India
2.5 Consequences of Environmental Degradation
2.6 Environmental Risks Facing India
2.7 Environmental Protection as Component of Growth Strategy
2.8 Measuring India’s Environmental Performance

3. Legal Provisions and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection
3.1 Constitutional Provisions
3.2 Major Central Legislations for Environmental Protection
3.3 National Green Tribunal (NGT)
3.4 Implementation of Environmental Laws
3.5 Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)
3.6 Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
3.7 State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs)

4. Land and Soil Degradation
4.1 India’s Land Resources
4.2 Use Distribution of India’s Geographical Area
4.3 Declining Per Capita Availability of Land
4.4 Cropping Pattern
4.5 Causes of Land Pollution and Degradation
4.6 Consequences of Land Degradation
4.7 Strategies to Check Land Degradation
4.8 Development of Wastelands
4.9 Fly Ash Utilization

5. Water Resources and Pollution
5.1 Importance of Water
5.2 Constitutional Provisions and Major Central Legislations Regarding Water
5.3 International Treaties
5.4 Rivers, Rainfall and Ground Water
5.5 Water Resources Potential
5.6 Utilization of Water
5.7 Water Pollution
5.8 Occurrence of Floods and Acid Rain
5.9 National Water Policy (NWP)
5.10 Measures Taken to Improve Water Quality
5.11 Future Requirements of Water
5.12 Climate Change and Uncertainty in Water Availability
5.13 Water Crisis Scenario

6. Air and Noise Pollution
6.1 Air Pollution
6.2 Noise Pollution

7. Forest Resources and Conservation
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Important Central Legislations Pertaining to Forests
7.3 Legislations of State Governments
7.4 Importance of Forests in the Indian Economy
7.5 Present Status of Forests in India
7.6 Encroachment and Degradation
7.7 Conflict of Interests
7.8 Problems of Indian Forest Sector
7.9 Forest Policy (FP), 1988
7.10 National Forest Commission (Chairman: Justice B.N. Kirpal), 2006
7.11 Joint Forest Management (JFM) Programme
7.12 Agro Forestry
7.13 Social Forestry
7.14 Forest Institutions in India
7.15 Forest Research
7.16 Forest Administration

8. Mineral Exploration/Exploitation and Environment
8.1 Mining Activities and Ecological Balance
8.2 Sustainable Development Framework for Mining Sector
8.3 Abandoned/Orphaned Mines
8.4 Mining and Land Use Management
8.5 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environment Management Systems (EMS)

9. Protection of Biological Diversity
9.1 Range of India’s Biodiversity
9.2 India’s Rich Ecosystems
9.3 Biosphere Reserves
9.4 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
9.5 Biological Diversity Act, 2002
9.6 Floral and Faunal Diversity
9.7 Marine Biodiversity

10. Urbanization and Environment
10.1 Human Settlements and Environment
10.2 Growth of Urbanization in India
10.3 Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992
10.4 Nature of Urban Municipal Services
10.5 Financing of Urban Municipal Services
10.6 Urban Transport Services
10.7 Urban Sanitation, Sewerage and Solid Waste Management
10.8 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)

11. Rural Development and Environment
11.1 Constitutional Provisions
11.2 Rural Water Supply
11.3 Rural Sanitation and Cleanliness

12. Women and the Environment
12.1 Women and Natural Resources
12.2 Effects of Degradation of Natural Resources on Women
12.3 Gender-Sensitive Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy

13. Global Climate Change
13.1 Evidence on Climate Change
13.2 Consequences of Climate Change
13.3 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

14. Climate Change and India
14.1 Impact of Climate Change on India
14.2 India’s Approach to Climate Change
14.3 National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
14.4 Other National and Sub-National Initiatives
14.5 Ozone Layer Protection

15. Disaster Mitigation and Management
15.1 India’s Vulnerability to Natural Disasters
15.2 Disaster Management and Development Planning
15.3 Disaster Management Act, 2005
15.4 National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)
15.5 National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)
15.6 Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) on Disaster Management
15.7 Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) on Disaster Management
15.8 Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) on Disaster Management
15.9 Disaster Management and Finance Commissions
15.10 Disaster Management: Global Experience

16. Policy Initiatives for Environmental Protection
16.1 Policy for Abatement of Pollution, 1992
16.2 National Environment Policy (NEP), 2006
16.3 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
16.4 Development of Environmental Standards
16.5 Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP), 2003
16.6 Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) for Industrial Clusters
16.7 Recognition of Environmental Laboratories under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
16.8 Industrial Pollution Abatement through Preventive Strategies (Waste Minimisation for Small and Medium Industries)
16.9 Hazardous Waste Management

17. Fiscal Incentives and Education for Environmental Protection
17.1 Fiscal and Financial Incentives
17.2 Environmental Education, Awareness and Training

Glossary of Terms Related to Environment and Ecology

Appendix 1: Report of High Level Committee to Review Various Acts Administered by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)

Appendix 2: Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Management of E-Waste, March 2008




Dr. N. Mani is presently Head, Post-graduate and Research Department of Economics, Erode Arts and Science College, Erode, Tamil Nadu. He holds M.A., M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees from Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. Specializing in development economics, he has 26 years of teaching experience to post-graduate and undergraduate classes. He successfully completed 2 major research projects sponsored by University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi. He is currently engaged in a research project sponsored by Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), New Delhi.

Dr. Mani has published 9 books and several papers on varied subjects in reputed journals. He is also the President of Tamil Nadu Science Forum and was organizing secretary of the National Children Science Congress, 2006. He has successfully guided and supervised the works of 6 Ph.D. and 14 M.Phil. scholars. He is a member of various academic bodies including Indian Society of Labour Economics and Indian Society of Agricultural Economics.

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