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Social Justice and Empowerment of Disadvantaged Groups in India : Policies and Programmes
By Rameshwari Pandya

First Published : 2013
ISBN : 9788177083545
Pages : 508
Binding : Hardbound
Size : 7 x 9
Price : US$ 128

In India, development planning in recent years has seen a visible shift in focus from the mere expansion of production of goods and services—and the consequent growth of per capita income—to planning for enhancement of human well-being.

Some of the important social problems like poverty, ignorance, over-population and rural backwardness are of a general nature and they are influenced—in varying degree—by factors like squalor and bad housing, malnutrition and physical and mental ill-health, neglected childhood, family disorganisation and low standard of living. For a long time, society has remained apathetic to these conditions, but with the awakening of political consciousness and the enthusiasm of organisations and workers to improve social conditions, there is a possibility of developing programmes which could gradually remedy the present situation.

India’s development efforts since Independence in 1947 have not benefited different social groups equitably. Certain social groups such as Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and some sections of minorities have historically been disadvantaged and vulnerable. Then there are certain other groups which suffer from handicaps. These include persons with disabilities, older persons, victims of alcoholism and drug abuse, street children, beggars, victims of substance abuse etc. Women belonging to SCs and STs are in a far worse situation by all development indicators. Poverty and deprivation affect them more adversely.

The concept of inclusive growth demands that all social groups have equal access to the services provided by public authorities and equal opportunity for upward economic and social mobility.

Part I: Disadvantaged Groups in India: Their Problems and Government Policies/Programmes
1. Constitutional Provisions and Institutional Arrangements for Disadvantaged Groups
1.1 Social Justice Objectives
1.2 Changing Concept of Family
1.3 Problem of Poverty
1.3.1 Expert Group on Poverty (Chairman: Suresh Tendulkar), 2009
1.4 Unorganized Workers
1.4.1 Agricultural Workers
1.4.2 Women Workers
1.4.3 Child Workers
1.5 Social Security Concerns of the Unorganized Workers
1.6 Constitutional Provisions
1.7 Concerned Ministries
1.7.1 Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
1.7.2 Ministry of Tribal Affairs
1.7.3 Ministry of Minority Affairs
1.8 Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) on Social Justice

2. Welfare and Empowerment of Scheduled Castes (SCs)
2.1 Distinguishing Features of SCs
2.2 Constitutional Safeguards for SCs
2.3 Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
2.4 Measures for Economic Advancement of SCs
2.4.1 National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation (NSFDC)
2.4.2 National Safai Karamcharis Finance and Development Corporation (NSKFDC)
2.4.3 Scheduled Castes Development Corporations (SCDCs)
2.4.4 National Scheme for Liberation and Rehabilitation of Scavengers (NSLRS)
2.4.5 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, (MGNREGA), 2005
2.4.6 Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
2.4.7 Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)
2.4.8 Scheduled Caste Sub-Plan (SCSP) and Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP)
2.5 Measures for Educational Advancement of SCs
2.5.1 Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowships Scheme for SC Students, 2010
2.5.2 Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatrawas Yojana, 2008
2.6 Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY), 2009
2.7 Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) on Scheduled Castes

3. Welfare and Empowerment of Scheduled Tribes (STs)
3.1 Background
3.2 Demographic Characteristics
3.3 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)
3.3.1 Scheme of Development of Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs)
3.4 De-notified Nomadic and Semi-nomadic Tribes
3.4.1 Peculiar Features of Denotified Tribes
3.4.2 Remedial Measures
3.5 Constitutional Safeguards for Schedules Tribes (STs)
3.5.1 Fifth Schedule of the Constitution
3.5.2 Sixth Schedule of the Constitution
3.5.3 Definition of Scheduled Tribes
3.5.4 Definition of Scheduled Areas
3.5.5 Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes Commission, 1960
3.6 Ministry of Tribal Affairs
3.7 Measures for Economic Advancement of STs
3.7.1 National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC)
3.7.2 Scheduled Tribes Development Corporations (STDCs)
3.7.3 Tribal Co-operative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd. (TRIFED)
3.7.4 Minor Irrigation Works
3.7.5 Commercial Vending of Liquor
3.7.6 Village Grain Bank Scheme
3.7.7 Scheduled Caste Sub-Plan (SCSP) and Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP)
3.7.8 Special Central Assistance and Grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution
3.7.9 Tribal Research Institutes
3.8 Measures for Educational Advancement of STs
3.8.1 Girls’ Hostels for Scheduled Tribes
3.8.2 Boys’ Hostels for Scheduled Tribes
3.8.3 Ashram Schools in Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) Areas
3.8.4 Vocational Training Centres in Tribal Areas
3.8.5 Strengthening Education among Scheduled Tribe Girls in Low Literacy Districts
3.8.6 Coaching for Scheduled Tribes
3.8.7 Post-matric Scholarship for Scheduled Tribe Students
3.8.8 Upgradation of Merit of ST Students
3.8.9 Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme (RGNF)
3.8.10 National Overseas Scholarship Scheme for Scheduled Tribes
3.9 Restoration of Traditional Rights
3.10 Rehabilitation and Resettlement
3.11 Problems and Constraints in Tribal Development
3.11.1 Constraints in Tribal Development
3.12 Development Strategy
3.13 Five Year Plans and Tribal Development

4. Welfare and Empowerment of Other Backward Classes (OBCs)
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Constitutional Safeguards
4.2.1 National Commission for Backward Classes
4.3 Measures for Socio-economic Advancement of OBCs
4.3.1 National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation (NBCFDC)

5. Socio-economic Development of Minorities
5.1 India’s Multi-culturalism and Protection of Weaker Sections
5.2 Meaning and Demographic Characteristics of Minorities
5.3 Constitutional Rights and Safeguards for Religious and Linguistic Minorities in India
5.3.1 Protection of Interests of Minorities (Article 29)
5.3.2 Right of Minorities to Establish and Administer Educational Institutions (Article 30)
5.3.3 Special Provision Relating to Language Spoken by a Section of the Population of a State (Article 347)
5.3.4 Language to be Used in Representations for Redress of Grievances (Article 350)
5.3.5 Facilities for Instruction in Mother-tongue at Primary Stage (Article 350A)
5.3.6 Common Domain and Separate Domain of Rights of Minorities Provided in the Constitution
5.4 Ministry of Minority Affairs
5.5 Constitutional and Statutory Bodies for Minorities
5.5.1 Central Wakf Council (CWC)
5.5.2 National Commission for Minorities (NCM)
5.5.3 National Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities (CLM)
5.6 Measures for Socio-economic Development of Minorities
5.6.1 Gopal Singh Committee
5.6.2 Rajinder Sachar Committee
5.6.3 Prime Minister’s New 15-Point Programme for Minorities
5.6.4 Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF)
5.6.5 National Minorities Development and Finance Corporation (NMDFC)
5.7 Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) on Minorities

6. Economic, Social and Political Empowerment of Women
6.1 Gender Equality and Development
6.2 Categorisation of Vulnerable Groups of Women
6.2.1 Women Impacted by Internal Displacement, Disasters and Migration
6.2.2 Women with Health Problems
6.2.3 Women in Border Trade Areas
6.2.4 Women Left Behind due to Suicide by Farmer Husbands
6.2.5 Other Vulnerable Groups of Women
6.2.6 The Missing Girl Child
6.3 Constitutional Provisions for Women in India
6.4 Legislations for Protection and Advancement of Women in India
6.4.1 Objectives of Women-specific Legislations
6.4.2 Laws Related to Dowry, Marriage and Divorce
6.4.3 Laws Related to Right to Property
6.4.4 Laws Related to Protection of and Crimes against Women
6.5 Legal Aid Services
6.5.1 Legal Services Authority Act, 1987
6.6 Implementation of Women-related Legislations: A Critique
6.7 Institutional Mechanism for Advancement of Women
6.7.1 Role of Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)
6.7.2 Programmes/Schemes of the MWCD
6.7.3 Autonomous Organisations under MWCD
6.8 National Policy for Empowerment of Women (NPEW), 2001

7. Protection, Welfare and Development of Children
7.1 Problems of Children
7.1.1 Malnutrition
7.1.2 Handicapped and Deficient Children
7.1.3 Juvenile Delinquency
7.1.4 Play Activities
7.1.5 Child Sex Ratio
7.1.6 Child Trafficking, Prostitution and Pornography
7.1.7 Street Children
7.1.8 Restraining Child Marriage
7.1.9 Central Adoption Resource Agency (CARA)
7.2 Child Welfare and Development in India’s Five Year Plans
7.3 Health of Children
7.3.1 Health Indices of India and Selected Asian Countries
7.3.2 Health Indices in Rural and Urban India
7.3.3 Health Care of Vulnerable Groups
7.3.4 Major Public Health Programmes for Children
7.3.5 Programmes for Nutritional Support
7.4 Education of Children
7.4.1 Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education
7.4.2 Select Programmes for Elementary Education
7.4.3 Problem Areas in Elementary Education
7.5 Child Workers
7.5.1 Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
7.5.2 Problems of Child Workers
7.5.3 National Child Labour Projects (NCLPs)

8. Welfare and Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities
8.1 Constitutional Provisions
8.2 Legislative Measures
8.2.1 Mental Health Act, 1987
8.2.2 Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995
8.2.3 National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disability Act, 1999
8.2.4 Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992
8.3 National Policy for Persons with Disability (NPPD), 2006
8.4 Schemes/Programmes for Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities
8.4.1 Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/Fitting of Aids and Appliances (ADIP Scheme)
8.4.2 Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme to Promote Voluntary Action for Persons with Disabilities (Revised DDRS Scheme)
8.4.3 Scheme of National Awards for Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities
8.4.4 Scheme of National Scholarships for Persons with Disabilities
8.4.5 Schemes Arising Out of the Implementation of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995
8.5 Statutory Bodies for Persons with Disabilities
8.5.1 National Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities, New Delhi
8.5.2 Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI), New Delhi
8.6 National Institutes for Persons with Disabilities
8.6.1 Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped (AYJNIHH)
8.6.2 Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped (IPH), New Delhi
8.6.3 National Institute of Mentally Handicapped (NIMH), Secundrabad
8.6.4 National Institute of Visually Handicapped (NIVH), Dehradun
8.6.5 National Institute for Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH), Kolkata
8.6.6 National Institute for Rehabilitation, Training and Research (NIRTAR), Cuttack
8.6.7 National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities (NIEPMD), Chennai
8.6.8 Indian Spinal Injuries Centre (ISIC), New Delhi
8.7 Public Sector Undertakings
8.7.1 Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India (ALIMCO), Kanpur
8.7.2 National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation (NHFDC), Faridabad

9. Welfare of Older Persons
9.1 National Policy on Older Persons (NPOP)
9.2 Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007
9.3 Older Persons: Schemes/Programmes
9.3.1 National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
9.3.2 Integrated Programme for Older Persons, 2008
9.3.3 Financial Incentives

10. Rehabilitation of Social Deviants
10.1 Juvenile Delinquents
10.2 Drug Addicts
10.2.1 Scheme for Prevention of Alcoholism and Substance (Drugs) Abuse
10.3 Beggars
10.3.1 Child Beggars
10.3.2 Disabled Beggars
10.3.3 Able-bodied Beggars

Part II: Edited Extracts from India’s Five Year Plans on Social Justice and Empowerment of Disadvantaged Groups (I to XII Plan)
First Five Year Plan: 1951-52 to 1955-5
Second Five Year Plan: 1956-57 to 1960-61
Third Five Year Plan: 1961-62 to 1965-66
Fourth Five Year Plan: 1969-70 to 1973-74
Fifth Five Year Plan: 1974-75 to 1978-79
Sixth Five Year Plan: 1980-81 to 1984-85
Seventh Five Year Plan: 1985-86 to 1989-90
Eighth Five Year Plan: 1992-93 to 1996-97
Ninth Five Year Plan: 1997-98 to 2001-02
Tenth Five Year Plan: 2002-03 to 2006-07
Eleventh Five Year Plan: 2007-08 to 2011-12
Twelfth Five Year Plan: 2012-13 to 2016-17




Professor Rameshwari Pandya is Chairperson of Child Rights Commission, Government of Gujarat. A recipient of Shrimati Leelaben Shah Gold Medal, she is currently Head of the Department of Extension and Communication, Faculty of Family and Community Sciences, The Maharaja Sayajirao (M.S.) University of Baroda, Vadodara.

She obtained her B.Sc. and B.Ed. degrees from Lady Irwin College, New Delhi and M.Sc., M.Ed. and Ph.D. degrees in Home Science from The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara.

Professor Pandya is presently working on a major Water Management project funded by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, New Delhi. She has published more than 25 books and 150 research papers on a variety of subjects in peer-reviewed journals/technical reports. She has actively participated in various seminars, conferences and workshops organized at national and international levels. She has travelled to US, UK, Canada, Dubai and Singapore for professional enrichment and interaction.

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