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Micro Finance and Micro Enterprises in India
By Sanjeeb K. Jena

First Published : 2013
ISBN : 9788177083316
Pages : 278
Binding : Hardbound
Size : 5 x 9
Price : US$ 53

Most people living in rural areas of India draw their livelihood from agriculture and allied sectors. However, the growth and balanced development of other sectors such as industry and services is also necessary to sustain the growth of Indian economy in an inclusive manner.

Micro credit has emerged as a visible credit channel to the poor as their access to conventional credit channels is constrained by the requirement of collateral and high transaction cost. The target groups, therefore, broadly comprise small and marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, artisans and craftsmen and other poor engaged in small businesses.

Micro enterprises in India provide livelihood, check rural-urban migration, generate export earnings and touch upon the lives of the remotest and most marginalized people. The needs, problems and potential of these enterprises differ not just with the nature of activity (weaving, knitting, wood-carving etc.), but also with the size, geographical location and organizational structure. Not only do micro enterprises generate the highest employment per capita investment, they also go a long way in checking rural urban migration by providing villagers and people living in isolated areas with a sustainable source of employment.

1. Micro Finance and Micro Enterprises in Developing Countries
1.1 Contribution of Micro Enterprises
1.2 Micro Credit for Poverty Reduction
1.3 Micro Finance, Micro Enterprises and the Poor
1.4 Micro Enterprises for Women Empowerment
1.5 Challenges in Promoting Micro Finance and Micro Enterprises
1.5.1 Financial Sustainability
1.5.2 Market Penetration
1.5.3 Fragmentation
1.6 Role of Self-help Groups (SHGs)
1.7 Multiple Roles of Rural SHGs
1.7.1 SHGs as Micro Finance Institutions
1.7.2 SHGs as Networks for Rural Well-being
1.7.3 SHGs and Social Capital
1.7.4 SHGs and the Debt-Resource Hypothesis
1.7.5 SHGs and the Poverty-Environment Nexus
1.7.6 Women Support for SHGs
1.8 Use of Indigenous Knowledge for Micro Enterprises

2. Micro Enterprises in the Indian Context
2.1 Characteristics of Rural India
2.2 Role of Micro Enterprises
2.3 Entrepreneurship in India
2.4 Micro Finance for Poverty Eradication
2.5 Role of the Government
2.6 Policy Prescriptions

3. Poverty Dimensions in India
3.1 Facets of Poverty
3.1.1 Poverty is Hunger
3.1.2 Poor Health and Early Death
3.1.3 Loss of Childhood
3.1.4 Denial of Right to Basic Education
3.1.5 Powerlessness
3.2 Poverty Traps
3.3 Pro-Poor Growth
3.4 State-wise Variations in Poverty
3.5 Regional Poverty and Inequality
3.6 Effective Poverty Reduction Strategies
3.6.1 Development and Well-being
3.6.2 Beyond Material Well-being
3.6.3 Coherence between Definitions of Poverty
3.6.4 Building on Strengths and Potentials
3.6.5 People’s Decision-making
3.6.6 Sustainable Livelihood
3.6.7 Culture and Spirituality
3.7 Poverty and Informal Employment

4. Sustainable Livelihood Framework
4.1 What is Sustainable Development?
4.2 Conditions for Sustainable Livelihoods

5. Micro Finance and Self-help Groups (SHGs)
5.1 Supporting Vulnerable Groups through Micro Finance
5.2 Cluster Development Initiatives
5.3 Micro Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation
5.4 Micro Enterprises and Self-help Groups (SHGs)

6. Institutional Support for Micro Entrepreneurs
6.1 Cluster Approach for Micro Enterprises
6.2 Need for Government Intervention
6.3 Other Interventions
6.4 Government Initiatives under Different Plans
6.5 Institutions Promoting Handicrafts at National Level
6.5.1 Development Commissioner (Handicrafts)
6.5.2 Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation (TRIFED)
6.5.3 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), Mumbai
6.5.4 Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), New Delhi
6.5.5 Coir Board, Ministry of ARI, Government of India, Kochi
6.5.6 Council for Advancement of People's Action and Rural Technology (CAPART)
6.5.7 National Centre for Design and Product Development, New Delhi
6.5.8 Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts, New Delhi
6.5.9 Council of Handicrafts Development Corporation, New Delhi
6.5.10 Khadi and Village Industry (KVIC)
6.5.11 National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation (NBCFDC)
6.6 Handicrafts Artisans Comprehensive Welfare Scheme
6.6.1 Bima Yojana for Handicrafts Artisans
6.6.2 Rajiv Gandhi Shilpi Swasthya Bima Yojana
6.6.3 Work shed for Handicraft Artisans

7. Role of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs)
7.1 Significance of NGOs in the Informal Sector
7.2 Achievements of NGOs Relating to Women's Issues
7.2.1 Bharat Integrated Social Welfare Agency (BISWA)
7.2.2 Promotion of Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)
7.2.3 Product and Services
7.2.4 Micro Enterprises Development Approaches
7.2.5 Micro Marketing
7.3 Government-NGOs Collaboration

Appendix: Micro Finance and Micro Enterprises: A Case Study of Kalahandi, Balangir and  Koraput (KBK) Districts of Orissa



Dr. Sanjeeb K. Jena is presently Lecturer in Commerce in Aeronautics College (affiliated to Berhampur University), Sunabeda, Odisha. A gold medalist of Utkal University in M.Com. (1990) examination, he obtained his M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees also from the same university. He has published 16 research papers in referred national and international journals and also authored a book.

Dr. Jena worked in the area of finance with such organizations as Orissa State Housing Board, and UNICEF. He specializes in rural finance, rural development, and micro enterprises.

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