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Women Status and Empowerment in India
By Shyam Kartik Mishra , Pradeep Kumar Pandey

First Published : 2012
ISBN : 9788177083132
Pages : 304
Binding : Hardbound
Size : 7 x 9
Price : US$ 79
ABOUT THE BOOK

According to Census 2011, population of India increased from 103 crore in 2001 to 121 crore in 2011, an increase of 18 crore or 17.6 percent. Out of 121 crore, 62.4 crore (51.6 percent) were males and 58.6 crore (48.4) females. Unfortunately, Census 2011 data shows that the sex ratio for children below 6 years (i.e. number of girls for every 1,000 boys) dropped from 927 in 2001 to a dismal 914 in 2011. This decline is unabated since 1961 Census. This gender bias draws attention to a lingering societal flaw which economic growth is not being able to correct.

Gender equality is a constituent of development as well as an instrument of development. No country can be deemed developed if half of its population is severely disadvantaged in terms of basic needs, livelihood options, access to knowledge, and political voice.

Discrimination on the lines of gender is not always overt. It appears in very subtle forms such as in the nature of work performed, skills required to perform the work and the valuation of these skills and the technology used by men and women. One problem more specific to women is that they are subject to various forms of harassment at the workplace. Verbal and physical violence against women has been an age-old method of subjugating them.

Advancement and empowerment of women has been a leading objective of state policy ever since the attainment of Independence in 1947. Institutions of different types—Central, State and Local Governments, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), civil society and other bodies—are active to ensure gender equality as laid down in the Constitution of India.

Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) of India recognized women, for the first time, not just as equal citizens but as agents of economic and social growth. Women’s lack of economic empowerment not only impedes growth and poverty reduction, but also has a host of other negative impacts including less favourable education and health outcomes for children. Thus, it is extremely important to ensure that women are economically, socially and politically empowered.

This book provides a vivid account of the problems faced by Indian women, particularly those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. It explains comprehensively the various policies, programmes and schemes initiated by the Government of India in co-operation with other agencies for the welfare, development and empowerment of women in India.

The book will be of interest to those involved/interested in the socio-economic empowerment of women, including researchers, academicians, industry associations, and policy formulators.


CONTENTS
     
1. Women and Society: An Introduction
1.1 Women and Family
1.2 Gender Equality and Development
1.3 Women and Armed Conflict
1.4 Globalization and Women
1.4.1 Adverse Effects of Globalization on Women
1.4.2 Opportunities Offered by Globalization
1.5 Gender Budgeting
1.5.1 Meaning of Gender Budgeting
1.5.2 Meaning of Gender Mainstreaming
1.5.3 Objectives of Gender Budgeting
1.5.4 Rationale of Gender Budgeting
1.5.5 Tools of Gender Budgeting
1.5.6 Gender Budgeting in Select Countries
1.6 Women in Indian History
1.6.1 Ancient Period
1.6.2 Medieval Period
1.6.3 Modern Period
1.7 Female Literacy and Sex Ratio: Census 2011
1.7.1 Literacy Rate
1.7.2 Overall Sex Ratio
1.7.3 Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years)
1.8 National Population Policy (NPP), 2000
 
2. Constitutional and Legal Safeguards for Women in India
2.1 Constitutional Provisions for Women in India
2.2 Legislations for Protection and Advancement of Women in India
2.2.1 Objectives of Women-specific Legislations
2.3 Laws Related to Dowry, Marriage and Divorce
2.3.1 Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
2.3.2 Foreign Marriage Act, 1969
2.3.3 Special Marriage Act, 1954
2.3.4 Christian Marriage Act, 1872
2.3.5 Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
2.3.6 Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
2.3.7 Marriage (Amendment) Act, 2001
2.4 Laws Related to Right to Property
2.4.1 Hindu Succession Act, 1956
2.4.2 Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937
2.5 Laws Related to Protection of and Crimes against Women
2.5.1 Crimes Identified under the Indian Penal Code (IPC)
2.5.2 Crimes Identified under the Special Laws
2.6 Laws Related to Protection of Rights of Working Women
2.7 Legal Aid Services
2.7.1 Legal Services Authority Act, 1987
2.8 Implementation of Women-related Legislations: A Critique
2.9 India’s Commitments to International Conventions on Women Welfare
 
3. Institutional Mechanism for Advancement of Women
3.1 Components of Institutional Mechanism
3.2 Role of the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)
3.3 Programmes/Schemes of the MWCD
3.3.1 Swayamsiddha
3.3.2 Support for Training and Employment Programme (STEP)
3.3.3 Working Women Hostels and Crèches
3.3.4 Short Stay Homes for Women and Girls
3.3.5 Swawlamban Programme
3.3.6 Swadhar
3.3.7 Rajiv Gandhi National Crèche Scheme for Children of Working Mothers
3.4 Compensation to Rape Victims
3.5 Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA), 2006
3.6 Autonomous Organisations under MWCD
3.6.1 National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD)
3.6.2 Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)
3.6.3 Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB)
3.6.4 Central Adoption Resource Agency (CARA)
3.6.5 National Commission for Women (NCW)
3.6.6 National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)
 
4. Categorisation of Vulnerable Groups of Women
4.1 Women Impacted by Internal Displacement, Disasters and Migration
4.1.1 Women Affected by Internal Displacements
4.1.2 Disaster-affected Women
4.1.3 Migrant Women
4.2 Women with Health Problems
4.2.1 Women Affected by HIV/AIDS
4.2.2 Women with Disability
4.3 Women in Border Trade Areas
4.4 Women Left Behind due to Suicide by Farmer Husbands
4.5 Other Vulnerable Groups of Women
4.5.1 Adolescent Girls
4.5.2 Violence-affected Women
4.5.3 Women as Labourers
4.5.4 Women in Agriculture
4.5.6 Women from Minority Community
4.5.7 Single Women
4.5.8 Others
4.6 The Missing Girl Child
 
5. National Policy for Empowerment of Women (NPEW), 2001
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Objectives of the Policy
5.3 Various Elements of NPEW
5.3.1 Politico-legal Empowerment of Women
5.3.2 Economic Empowerment of Women
5.3.3 Social Empowerment of Women
5.4 Operational Strategies of NPEW
5.4.1 Action Plans
5.4.2 Institutional Mechanisms
5.4.3 Resource Management
5.4.4 Legislation
5.4.5 Gender Sensitization
5.4.6 Panchayati Raj Institutions
5.4.7 Partnership with the Voluntary Sector Organizations
5.4.8 International Cooperation
 
6. Women Workers in India
6.1 Double Burden of Work for Women
6.2 Characteristics of Women’s Work in India
6.2.1 Volatility of Employment
6.2.2 Self-employed Service Work
6.2.3 Subsidiary Status Work
6.2.4 Women’s Migration for Work
6.2.5 Home-based Work
6.2.6 Unpaid Work
6.2.7 Crisis of Livelihoods in Agriculture
6.3 Problems of Women Workers
6.3.1 Double Burden of Work
6.3.2 Non-conventional Place of Work
6.3.3 Sexual Division of Labour
6.3.4 Sexual Harassment
6.3.5 Female Domestic Workers
6.4 Categorisation of Laws Pertaining to Women Workers
6.4.1 Category I Laws
6.4.2 Category II Laws
6.4.3 Category III Laws
6.5 Enforceability of the Acts
 
7. Economic Empowerment of Women
7.1 Women and the Economy
7.2 Vicious Circle of Poverty and Gender Inequality
7.2.1 Gender Discrimination in Wages
7.3 Strategies for Economic Empowerment of Women
7.3.1 Sound Macroeconomic Policies
7.3.2 Improvement in Infrastructure
7.3.3 Gender-sensitive Agricultural Policies
7.3.4 Self-help Groups (SHGs) and Empowerment of Women
7.3.5 Skill Development
7.3.6 Gender Mainstreaming in the Corporate Sector
7.3.7 Gender-friendly Insurance Schemes
7.3.8 Gender Sensitization of Trade Policy
7.3.9 Right to Maintenance
7.3.10 Research and Development
7.4 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005
7.4.1 Objectives and Significance of MGNREGA
7.4.2 Funding of the Programme
7.4.3 Expression of Demand for Employment
7.4.4 Labour Budget, Inventory of Projects and Perspective Plan
7.4.5 Work Record, Payment of Wages and Preventing Bogus Muster Rolls
7.4.6 Women Empowerment
7.4.7 Vigilance and Transparency
7.4.8 Public Accountability
7.4.9 Grievance Redressal
7.4.10 Financial Management
7.4.11 Other Processes of MGNREGA
7.4.12 MGNREGA: A Review
7.4.13 Recommendations of the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) to Improve the Functioning of MGNREGA
7.4.14 Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) on MGNREGA
7.5 National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM)
7.5.1 Main Provisions of NRLM
7.5.2 Funding Pattern, Transition and Implementation
7.5.3 Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning
7.5.4 Mahila Kisan Shasaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)
7.5.5 Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) on NRLM
7.6 Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)
7.6.1 Salient Features of IAY
7.6.2 Monitoring Mechanism
7.6.3 Allotment of Homestead Plot
7.6.4 Critical Evaluation of IAY
7.7 Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)
7.7.1 Objectives
7.7.2 Components
7.7.3 Revised Guidelines
7.7.4 Revision of Unit Cost of School and Anganwadi Toilets
7.7.5 Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) on TSC
7.8 Rural Water Supply
7.8.1 Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP)
7.8.2 Swajaldhara
7.8.3 Online Monitoring
7.8.4 National Rural Drinking Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Programme (NRDWQM&SP)
7.8.5 National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP)
7.8.6 Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)
7.8.7 Gender Budgeting
7.9 Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG), 2010
7.10 Gender-Sensitive Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy
7.11 Gender Budgeting in India
7.11.1 Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)
7.11.2 Women‘s Component Plan (WCP) in Five Year Plans
7.11.3 Gender Budgeting in Union Budgets
7.11.4 Gender Budgeting at the Level of States
 
8. Social Empowerment of Women
8.1 Women and Health
8.1.1 Health Needs of Women
8.1.2 HIV/AIDS
8.1.3 Reproductive Health
8.1.4 Changing Pattern of Lifestyle Illness
8.1.5 Women and Ageing
8.1.6 Specific Micronutrient Deficiencies in India
8.1.7 National Health Policy, 2002
8.1.8 Sarva Swasthya Abhiyan (SSA)
8.1.9 National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)
8.1.10 Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)
8.2 Family Planning and Welfare
8.2.1 Family Welfare in the National Population Policy (NPP), 2000
8.3 Nutrition Support
8.3.1 National Nutrition Mission (NNM)
8.3.2 Time-bound Goals of the Eleventh Five Year Plan
8.4 Women and Education
8.4.1 Education for All
8.4.2 Sexual Harassment, Violence and Women’s Education
8.4.3 Elementary Education
8.4.4 Adult Education
8.5 Women and Media
8.6 Women and Migration
8.7 Vulnerability of Widows
8.8 Task Force on Women and Children
 
9. Political Empowerment of Women
9.1 Women in Decision-making
9.2 Women in Local Bodies: Panchayats and Municipalities
9.2.1 Constitutional Provisions Regarding Local Bodies
9.3 Decentralisation Initiative, 1992 and Reservation of Seats for Women
9.4 Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992
9.5 Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992
9.5.1 Constitution of Municipalities
9.5.2 Composition of Municipalities
9.5.3 Constitution of Wards Committees
9.5.4 Reservation of Seats
9.5.5 Duration of Municipalities
9.5.6 Powers and Functions of the Municipalities
9.5.7 Finances of Municipalities
9.5.8 Finance Commission
9.5.9 Elections to Municipalities
9.5.10 Audit and Accounts
9.5.11 Committee for District Planning
9.5.12 Metropolitan Planning Committees
9.6 Amendment to Article 243T of the Constitution to Provide for 50 percent Reservation for Women in Urban Local Bodies
9.7 New Status of Municipalities: An Assessment
9.7.1 Desirability and Feasibility of Uniformity in Municipal Functions
9.7.2 Role of State Finance Commissions
9.8 Tenth Finance Commission (FC-X) on Local Bodies
9.9 Eleventh Finance Commission (FC-XI) on Local Bodies
9.10 Twelfth Finance Commission (FC-XII) on Local Bodies
9.11 Thirteenth Finance Commission (FC-XIII) on Local Bodies
9.12 Women in Local Bodies: An Appraisal
9.12.1 Lack of Confidence
9.12.2 Proxy Politics
9.13 Gender Mainstreaming in Legislatures, Judiciary and Police
 
10. Welfare, Development and Empowerment of Women in India’s Five Year Plans
10.1 First Five Year Plan to Ninth Five Year Plan
10.2 Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07)
10.3 Gender-specific Concerns in the Mid-term Review of the Tenth Plan
10.4 Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12)
 
11. Human Rights and Violence against Women
11.1 Meaning, Nature and Forms of Violence against Women
11.2 Human Rights in India
11.3 Sexual Harassment of Women
11.4 Rape and Sexual abuse
11.4.1 Relief and Rehabilitation of Rape victims
11.5 Other Crimes
11.6 Organized Crime: Trafficking in Women
11.6.1 Ujjawala
11.7 Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace
 
12. Protecting the Girl Child
12.1 Campaign for the Girl Child’s Right to Life
12.2 Health and Malnutrition
12.3 Education and Schooling
12.4 Sexual Abuse and Trafficking
12.5 Measures to Protect the Girl Child
12.5.1 Dhanalakshmi
12.5.2 Prevention of Child Pornography
 
13. Women and the Environment
13.1 Women and Natural Resources
13.2 Effects of Degradation of Natural Resources on Women

Appendix 1: Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) and the Beijing Platform for Action (PFA)
Appendix 2: Edited Extracts from India’s Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) on Women Welfare and Development
 
Bibliography

Index

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
     

Dr. Shyam Kartik Mishra is Associate Professor of Economics at Post-graduate College, Sakaldiha, Chandauli (Varanasi), Uttar Pradesh. He holds M.A. (Economics) and Ph.D.  degrees and a certificate in population studies from International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai. He has taught at S.N.D.T. University, Mumbai. Dr. Mishra has published a number of research papers in reputed journals, edited books and conference volumes. He has 4 books to his credit published from New Delhi, Kanpur and Varanasi. Dr. Mishra has completed 5 research projects sponsored by University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi and Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), New Delhi. He is founder General Secretary of Uttar Pradesh-Uttarakhand Economic Association (UPUEA). He specializes in demography and gender economics.

      Dr. Pradeep Kumar Pandey is Professor of Economics at M.G. Kashi Vidyapeeth, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. He got accolade for his widely circulated book, Gandhi Ka Arthik Evam Samajik Chintan, published by University of Delhi. Banking Reforms and Globalisation and Demographic Impact of Women’s Age at Marriage in India are the other two books authored by him. Dr. Pandey has successfully completed several major and minor research projects sponsored by ICSSR and UGC. He has published a number of research papers in journals of repute and edited volumes. His areas of specialization include Gandhian economics and gender issues. 


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