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Complete Catalogue - 2015-2016
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    Economics and Commerce
Accounting Standards / Auditing
Banking, Finance and Insurance
Business Environment
Capital Market
Climate Change
Disaster Management
Economic History
Economic Planning in India
Economic Reforms in India
Employment and Labour Welfare
Energy Security
Environment and Economics
Food Security
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Foreign Exchange/Currency
Foreign Trade/External Sector
Global Financial Crisis/Global Recession
Goods and Services Tax (GST)
Governance / E-governance
Human Development
Indian Economy: General
Indian Industry, Small and Medium Enterprises, Public Sector
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Infrastructure and Urban Development
International Trade
Islamic Studies
Labour Economics
Micro Finance/Self-help Groups (SHGs)/Micro Credit
Monetary/Credit Policy
Panchayati Raj
Public Finance, Fiscal Federalism, Government Budgeting, Taxation
Regional Development
Research Methodology
Rural Development and Poverty
Skill Development
Social Services/Human Welfare
Urban Planning
Water Resources
Consumer Behaviour, Advertising and Consumer Protection
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    Political Science
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    Food Standards
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    Women Studies
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Women Empowerment
Women Studies / Gender Studies
Indian History
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Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)
Law - General
    Education - General
Human, Economic and Environmental
Economic Laws, Regulations and Procedures in India
By Chandra Shekhar Prasad

First Published : 2011
ISBN : 9788177082814
Pages : 494
Binding : Hardbound
Size : 7 x 9
Price : US$ 116

Economic reforms in India were set in motion, though on a modest scale, when controls on industries were reduced by the 1985 industrial policy. Economic liberalization programme got a big boost when the Government announced a new industrial policy in the Indian Parliament on July 24, 1991. Reform measures of the last two decades have included delicensing of most industries, deregulation of industries earlier monopolized by the public sector, liberalization of foreign trade through a gradual reduction of import duties, and freeing up of the foreign investment limits in nearly all industries. These measures have pulled the economy from a low level equilibrium trap to a strong, vibrant and fast-growing economy, which is rapidly integrating with the world economy.

Apart from the Central Government, many State Governments have also initiated significant procedural and policy reforms to promote foreign investment and encourage domestic private participation in the development of their respective States. While the incentive package varies from State to State depending upon their investment priorities, some common features are discernible. These include development of industrial estates, removing artificial barriers within States, decentralisation of decision-making, time-bound clearance of projects, investment subsidy, exemption/deferment of sales tax and power tariff concessions.

India has emerged as an investment-friendly country, both for domestic and foreign investors. Prior to reforms, foreign investment was allowed generally in areas of hi-tech, sophisticated technologies and substantial exports. Government has now established a more liberalised foreign investment policy as a part of the new industrial policy announced in July 1991.

According to the much-publicised Goldman Sachs BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) Report, India is predicted to become the third largest economy in the world, after China and USA, by the year 2050, overtaking all other developed economies.

An understanding of current laws, regulations and procedures as applicable to different sectors of the Indian economy is essential for present and prospective entrepreneurs/investors in India and abroad. This book is designed to serve this purpose.

1. India at a Glance
1.1 Physiognomy and Relief
1.2 Range of Biodiversity
1.3 Demography
1.4 Cultural Pattern
1.5 Political and Governance Structure
1.6 Socio-economic Transformation
2. Natural Resources of India
2.1 Land Resources
2.1.1 Land Pollution and Land Degradation
2.2 Water Resources
2.2.1 Rivers of India
2.2.2 Rainfall
2.2.3 Underground Water
2.2.4 Water Resources Potential
2.2.5 Utilization of Water
2.2.6 Water Pollution
2.2.7 Climate Change and Uncertainty in Water Availability
2.2.8 Future Requirements of Water
2.3 Forest Resources
2.3.1 Present Status of Forests in India
2.4 Mineral Resources
3. Economic Planning Framework
3.1 Constitutional Provisions
3.2 Establishment of the Planning Commission
3.3 Establishment of National Development Council (NDC)
3.4 Objectives of Economic Planning in India
3.4.1 Rapid Economic Growth
3.4.2 Removal of Poverty and Unemployment
3.4.3 Reduction of Economic Inequalities
3.4.4 Self-reliance
3.4.5 Balanced Regional Development
3.4.6 Employment Generation
3.5 Financing of the Plan
3.5.1 Internal Resources
3.5.2 External Assistance
3.6 Achievements of Economic Planning
3.6.1 Development of Infrastructure and Basic Industries
3.6.2 Breakthrough in Agriculture
3.6.3 Reasonable Degree of Price Stability
3.6.4 Anti-poverty Programmes
3.7 Failures of Economic Planning
3.7.1 Slow Rate of Growth
3.7.2 Lack of Employment Generation
3.7.3 Denial of Social Justice
3.7.4 Regional Inequalities
4. Economic Reforms: 1991-2011
4.1 Initiation of Economic Reforms
4.2 Sectoral Description of Economic Reforms
4.2.1 Agricultural Sector
4.2.2 Industrial Sector
4.2.3 Fiscal Policy
4.2.4 Financial Sector
4.2.5 External Sector
4.3 Assessment of Economic Reforms
5. Agriculture and Rural Development
5.1 Agriculture in the Constitution of India
5.2 Taxation of Agricultural Income
5.3 Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976
5.3.1 Insurance Scheme for Agricultural Workers
5.4 Plant Quarantine (Regulations of Import into India) Order, 2003
5.4.1 Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
5.5 Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2003
5.6 Model Act for State Agricultural Produce Marketing (Development and Regulation) Act, 2003
5.7 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005
5.7.1 Objectives and Significance of MGNREGA
5.7.2 Funding of the Programme
5.7.3 Expression of Demand for Employment
5.7.4 Labour Budget, Inventory of Projects and Perspective Plan
5.7.5 Work Record, Payment of Wages and Preventing Bogus Muster Rolls
5.7.6 Women Empowerment
5.7.7 Vigilance and Transparency
5.7.8 Public Accountability
5.7.9 Grievance Redressal
5.7.10 Financial Management
5.7.11 Other Processes of MGNREGA
5.7.12 MGNREGA: A Review
5.7.13 Recommendations of the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) to Improve the Functioning of MGNREGA
5.8 Select Recent Schemes for Agricultural Development
5.8.1 National Seeds Policy, 2002
5.8.2 Agriculture Insurance Corporation, 2002
5.8.3 Marine Fishing Policy, 2004
5.8.4 National Horticulture Mission, 2005
5.8.5 National Food Security Mission (NFSM), 2007
5.8.6 National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy (NRRP), 2007
5.8.7 National Policy for Farmers, 2007
5.8.8 National Project on Management of Soil Health and Fertility, 2008
6. Industrial Policy
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Legal Framework for Industrialisation
6.2.1 Constitutional Provisions
6.2.2 Industrial (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951
6.2.3 Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) Act, 1969
6.2.4 Consumer Protection Act, 1986
6.2.5 Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999
6.2.6 Competition Act, 2002
6.3 Consumer Protection in India
6.3.1 Need for Consumer Protection
6.3.2 United Nations and Consumer Protection
6.3.3 Role of Standards
6.3.4 Central Consumer Protection Council
6.3.5 Quality Council of India
6.4 Competition Policy
6.4.1 Positive Effects of Competition
6.4.2 Economic Reforms and Competition
6.4.3 Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) on Competition
6.5 Industrial Licensing and Controls
6.6 Industrial Liberalisation since 1991
6.7 Public Sector Enterprises
6.7.1 Disinvestment of Government Equity
6.8 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006
6.8.1 Background
6.8.2 Classification and Definitions of MSMEs
6.8.3 Main Provisions of the MSMED Act, 2006
6.9 Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1987
6.9.1 External Causes
6.9.2 Internal Causes
6.10 Tax Holiday Schemes in India
6.10.1 Tax Holiday for Newly Established Industrial Undertakings in Free Trade Zones, Electronic Hardware Technology Parks, or Software Technology Parks
6.10.2 Tax Holiday for Newly Established Hundred Percent Export-Oriented Undertakings
6.10.3 Tax Holiday for Exporters of Wood-based Handicraft Items
7. Mineral Sector
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Constitutional Provisions
7.3 Ownership of Minerals
7.4 Kinds of Mineral Concessions
7.4.1 Period and Tenure of Reconnaissance Permit (RP)
7.4.2 Period and Tenure of Prospecting License (PL)
7.4.3 Period and Tenure of Mining Lease (ML)
7.5 Mineral Concessions for Foreign Investors
7.6 Provisions of Royalty and Dead Rent
7.7 Ministries Concerned with Mineral Resources
7.7.1 Ministry of Mines
7.7.2 Ministry of Coal
7.7.3 Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas
7.8 Early Phase of Mineral Policy and Legislation
7.8.1 Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR), 1956
7.8.2 Amendments in MMRD Act, 1957
7.9 National Mineral Policy (NMP), 1993
7.10 Legislative Changes Consequent to NMP, 1993
7.10.1 Further Amendments in MMRD Act, 1957
7.11 Need for Review of NMP, 1993
7.12 High Level Committee on National Mineral Policy, 2006
7.13 National Mineral Policy (NMP), 2008
7.14 Initiatives Taken for Implementation of NMP, 2008
7.14.1 Strengthening of Geological Survey of India (GSI)
7.14.2 Strengthening of Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM)
7.14.3 Mining Tenement and Registry System
7.14.4 Forest and Environment Issues
8. Infrastructure Development
8.1 Introduction
8.2 India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited (IIFCL)
8.3 Transport Sector
8.3.1 Indian Railways
8.3.2 Roads and Road Transport
8.3.3 Shipping and Ports
8.3.4 Civil Aviation
8.4 Telecommunications
8.4.1 Telecom Policy (NTP), 1999
8.4.2 Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL)
8.4.3 Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)
8.4.4 Telecommunication Services in Rural Areas
8.5 IT and IT-enabled Services
8.5.1 Information Technology Act (ITA), 2000
8.5.2 Strategies of Indian IT-BPO Companies
8.5.3 Information Technology in Indian Banking
8.6 Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
8.6.1 Main Features of the SEZ Policy in India
8.6.2 Criteria for Approval
8.6.3 Conversion of EPZs into SEZs
8.7 Tax Incentives for Infrastructure Development
8.7.1 Incentives under Section 35-AC
8.7.2 Extension of Tax Concessions for Infrastructure in the 2006-07 Union Budget
9. Energy Management
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Ministries Dealing with Energy Needs
9.2.1 Ministry of Power (MoP)
9.2.2 Ministry of Coal
9.2.3 Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas
9.2.4 Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)
9.2.5 Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)
9.3 Electricity Generation, Transmission and Distribution
9.3.1 Electricity Act, 2003
9.3.2 National Electricity Policy, 2005
9.3.3 Organizations Dealing with Electricity
9.3.4 Trading in Electricity
9.3.5 New Tariff Policy
9.3.6 Power Transmission Network and National Power Grid
9.4 Coal Resources
9.4.1 Captive Mining Policy, 1993
9.4.2 Coal Pricing
9.5 Petroleum and Natural Gas
9.5.1 New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP)
9.6 Renewable Energy Sources
9.6.1 Non-conventional Energy Sources in the Electricity Act, 2003
9.6.2 Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA)
9.7 Atomic Power for Civil Use
9.8 Energy Conservation
9.8.1 Energy Conservation Act, 2001
9.8.2 Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC)
9.8.3 Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
10. Government Budgeting Procedures
10.1 Procedures in Respect of Financial Matters
10.2 Revenue Budget and Capital Budget
10.2.1 Revenue Budget
10.2.2 Capital Budget
10.3 Various Measures of Budget Deficit
10.3.1 Overall Deficit (or Budgetary Deficit)
10.3.2 Fiscal Deficit
10.3.3 Revenue Deficit
10.3.4 Primary Deficit
10.3.5 Monetised Deficit
10.4 Accounts of the Government
10.4.1 Consolidated Fund of India
10.4.2 Contingency Fund
10.4.3 Public Account
10.5 Financial Emergency
10.6 Legalisation of the Budget
10.6.1 Presentation of the Budget
10.6.2 General Discussion
10.6.3 Demands for Grants
10.6.4 Appropriation Bill
10.6.5 Finance Bill
10.6.6 Supplementary Budget
10.7 Execution of the Budget
10.7.1 Maintenance of Accounts
10.7.2 Auditing of Accounts
10.8 Parliamentary Control over the Budget
10.8.1 Public Accounts Committee
10.8.2 Estimates Committee
10.8.3 Committee on Public Undertakings
10.9 Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003
11. Taxation Laws
11.1 Constitutional Provisions Pertaining to Taxes
11.1.1 Distribution of Taxation Powers
11.1.2 Restrictions on Taxation Powers of the States
11.1.3 Rationale for Constitutional Arrangements
11.1.4 Sharing of Central Taxes
11.1.5 Philosophy of Articles 268 and 269
11.1.6 Taxes and Duties in the Union List not being Levied at Present
11.1.7 Freedom as to Payment of Taxes for Promotion of any Particular Religion
11.2 Income Tax
11.2.1 Constitutional Provisions
11.2.2 Income Tax Act, 1961: Main Provisions
11.3 Wealth Tax
11.3.1 Wealth Tax Act, l957: Main Provisions
11.4 Union Excise Duties
11.4.1 Constitutional Provisions
11.4.2 Various Types of Excise Duties
11.4.3 New Excise Tariff Nomenclature
11.4.4 Statutory versus Effective Rates
11.4.5 Triple Rate Excise Structure
11.4.6 Task Force on Indirect Taxes (Chairman: Vijay Kelkar), 2002
11.5 Taxation of Services
11.5.1 Constitutional Provisions
11.6 Customs Duties
11.6.1 Legal Framework
11.6.2 Various Types of Customs Duties
11.6.3 New Customs Tariff Nomenclature
11.6.4 Post-liberalisation Reduction and Rationalisation of Import Tariff
11.7 National Level Goods and Services Tax
11.8 Direct Taxes Code (DTC)
11.9 State Taxes
11.9.1 Land Revenue
11.9.2 Agricultural Income Tax
11.9.3 Professions Tax
11.9.4 Sales Tax/VAT
11.9.5 State Excises
11.9.6 Taxes on Motor Vehicles
11.9.7 Entertainment Tax
11.9.8 Stamp Duty and Registration Fees
11.9.9 Electricity Duty
11.9.10 Octroi
11.9.11 Land and Buildings
12. Public Spending and Subsidies
12.1 Classification of Public Expenditure
12.1.1 Revenue Expenditure
12.1.2 Capital Expenditure
12.2 Public Expenditure Policy
12.3 Subsidies
12.3.1 Food Subsidy
12.3.2 Fertiliser Subsidy
12.3.3 Petroleum Subsidy
12.4 Post-liberalisation Thinking on Subsidies
13. Public Debt Management
13.1 Constitutional Provisions Pertaining to Public Borrowings in India
13.2 Instruments of Government Borrowings in India
13.3 Contingent and other Liabilities
13.4 Reserve Bank of India as Debt Manager of the Government
13.4.1 RBI’s Evolving Strategy of Debt Management
13.5 Separation of Debt Management from Monetary Management
14. Fiscal Federalism
14.1 Centrally Biased Constitution
14.1.1 Supremacy of Union Legislative Power
14.1.2 Union Control over State Legislation
14.1.3 Emergency Provisions
14.1.4 Restrictions on Taxation Powers of the States
14.1.5 Restrictions on Borrowing Powers of the States
14.1.6 President’s Rule
14.2 Inter-governmental Transfers
14.3 Transfer of Resources through the Finance Commission
14.3.1 Finance Commission
14.3.2 From Itemised Sharing to Global Sharing
14.4 Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000
14.5 Transfer of Resources through the Planning Commission
14.6 State-Local Financial Relations
14.6.1 Constitutional Provisions
14.6.2 Decentralisation Initiative, 1992
14.6.3 Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992
15. Financial System
15.1 Regulation and Supervision of Financial System
15.2 Legal Reforms for Strengthening Financial Sector
15.2.1 Credit Information Companies (Regulation) Act, 2005
15.2.2 Government Securities Act, 2006
15.2.3 Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007
15.3 Committee on Financial Sector Assessment (CFSA), 2009
16. Financial Institutions
16.1 Classification of Financial Institutions in India
16.2 Regulation and Supervision of Financial Institutions in India
16.3 Legal Framework for Banking Sector in India
16.3.1 Laws Related to Banking Operations
16.3.2 Laws Relating to Debt Recovery and Enforcement of Security
16.3.3 Laws Relating to Payment Systems
16.3.4 Competition Act, 2002: Implications for the Banking Sector
16.3.5 Other Laws
16.4 Commercial Banks
16.4.1 Ownership and Governance of Commercial Banks
16.4.2 Public Sector Banks
16.4.3 Private Sector Banks
16.4.4 Foreign Banks in India
16.4.5 Monitoring of Frauds
16.4.6 Anti-money Laundering Guidelines
16.4.7 Migration to Basel Norms
16.4.8 Management of Non-performing Assets (NPAs)
16.5 Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
16.5.1 Restructuring of RRBs
16.6 Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs)
16.6.1 Mergers/Amalgamations of UCBs
16.7 Rural Co-operative Credit Institutions
16.7.1 Problem of Triangular Regulation of Rural Co-operatives
16.8 Development Finance Institutions (DFIs)
16.8.1 The Changed Scenario
16.9 Non-banking Financial Companies (NBFCs)
16.10 Mutual Funds
16.10.1 Legal and Regulatory Framework
16.10.2 Bifurcation of UTI
16.10.3 Features of Mutual Fund Industry in India
16.10.4 Problems of Mutual Funds
16.10.5 Mutual Funds and the Stock Market
16.11 Pension Funds
16.11.1 Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA)
16.12 Insurance Organisations
16.12.1 Regulations and Controls
17. Financial Markets
17.1 Importance of Financial Markets
17.2 Regulation and Supervision of Financial Markets in India
17.3 Money Market
17.4 Government Securities Market
17.4.1 Meaning of Securities and Government Securities
17.4.2 Government Securities Market: Legal Framework and Role of the RBI
17.5 Capital Market
17.5.1 Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992
17.6 Foreign Exchange Market
17.6.1 Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA), 1947
17.6.2 Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA), 1973
17.6.3 Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999
17.7 Payment Systems, Clearing and Settlement Infrastructure
18. Financial Instruments
18.1 Principal Direct Financial Instruments of the Capital Market
18.1.1 Ordinary Shares
18.1.2 Preference Shares
18.1.3 Debentures
18.2 Derivative Instruments in India
18.2.1 L.C. Gupta Committee on Derivatives Trading in India
18.2.2 Amendment of Securities Contract Regulation Act (SCRA)
18.2.3 Measures to Protect the Rights of Investors in the Derivatives Market
18.2.4 Credit Derivatives
18.2.5 Other Developments in the Derivatives Market
19. Labour Laws
19.1 Labour Policy and Productivity
19.2 Constitutional Provisions for Conditions of Work and Livelihoods
19.3 Post-Independence Philosophy of Labour Laws in India
19.4 Laws Concerning Conditions of Work
19.4.1 Factories Act, 1948
19.4.2 Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970
19.4.3 Plantation Labour Act, 1951
19.4.4 Mines Act, 1952
19.5 Laws Concerning Wages and Remuneration
19.5.1 Minimum Wages Act, 1948
19.5.2 Payment of Wages Act, 1936
19.6 Laws Concerning Employment Security and Industrial Relations
19.6.1 Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
19.6.2 Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946
19.7 Laws Concerning Social Security and Welfare of Workers
19.7.1 Employees State Insurance Act, 1948
19.7.2 Employees’ Provident Fund Act, 1952
19.7.3 Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972
19.7.4 Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923
19.8 Miscellany of Labour Laws
19.8.1 Trade Union Act, 1926
19.8.2 Weekly Holidays Act, 1942
19.8.3 Working Journalists and Other Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1955
19.8.4 Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959
19.8.5 Apprenticeship Act, 1961
19.8.6 Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961
19.8.7 Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
19.8.8 Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966
19.8.9 Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions of Services) Act, 1976
19.8.10 Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979
19.8.11 Emigration Act, 1983
19.8.12 Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act, 1983
19.8.13 Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act, 1986
19.8.14 Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993
19.8.15 Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996
19.8.16 Other Legislations
19.9 Social Security for Organized Workers
19.9.1 Employees State Insurance (ESI) Scheme
19.9.2 Employees Provident Fund Organization (EPFO)
19.9.3 Payment of Gratuity
19.9.4 Retrenchment Compensation
19.9.5 National Renewal Fund
19.10 Issues in Labour Law Reforms
19.10.1 Complexities in Labour Laws
19.10.2 Inflexibility of Labour Laws
19.10.3 Dualism in Labour Laws
19.10.4 Industrial Disputes Act (IDA), 1947
19.10.5 Contract Labour
19.10.6 Inspection System
19.10.7 Limited Coverage and Poor Enforcement
19.11 Economic Reforms and Labour Laws
19.12 Unorganized (Informal) Workers in India
19.12.1 National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS)
19.12.2 Social Security Concerns for the Unorganized Workers
19.12.3 Unorganised Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008
19.13 Women Workers in India
19.13.1 Categorisation of Laws Pertaining to Women Workers
19.13.2 Enforceability of the Acts
19.14 Child Workers
19.14.1 Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
20. Environmental Laws
20.1 Environment-Development Interface
20.2 Environmental Pollution
20.3 Environmental Risks Facing India
20.4 Environmental Protection as Component of Growth Strategy
20.5 Law and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection
20.5.1 Constitutional Provisions
20.5.2 Major Central Legislations for Environmental Protection
20.5.3 National Green Tribunal (NGT)
20.5.4 Implementation of Environmental Laws
20.5.5 Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF)
20.5.6 Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
20.5.7 State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs)
20.6 Water Legislations and Treaties
20.6.1 Constitutional Provisions
20.6.2 Major Central Legislations Regarding Water
20.6.3 International Treaties
20.7 Air and Noise Pollution Legislations
20.7.1 Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
20.7.2 Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2009
20.8 Forests and Wildlife Legislations and Procedures
20.8.1 Constitutional Provisions
20.8.2 Important Central Legislations Pertaining to Forests and Wildlife
20.8.3 Legislations of State Governments
20.9 Forest Conservation Division of MoEF
20.9.1 Procedure for Obtaining Forest Clearance
20.9.2 Regional Offices and their Functions
20.10 Wildlife Wing of MoEF
20.11 Biological Diversity
20.11.1 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
20.11.2 Biological Diversity Act, 2002
20.11.3 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
20.12 Urbanization and Environment
20.12.1 Growth of Urbanization in India
20.12.2 Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992
20.12.3 Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000
20.13 Disaster Mitigation and Management
20.13.1 India’s Vulnerability to Natural Disasters
20.13.2 Disaster Management Act, 2005
20.13.3 National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
20.13.4 State and District Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs)
20.13.5 National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)
20.13.6 National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)
20.14 Global Climate Change and India
20.14.1 India’s Approach to Climate Change
20.14.2 National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
20.14.3 Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change
20.15 Other Policy Initiatives for Environmental Protection
20.15.1 National Environment Policy (NEP) 2006
20.15.2 NEP, 2006 on Clean Technology
20.15.3 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
20.15.4 Post-project Monitoring of Environment Clearance Conditions
20.15.5 Development of Environmental Standards
20.15.6 Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP), 2003
20.15.7 Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) for Industrial Clusters
20.15.8 Recognition of Environmental Laboratories under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
20.15.9 Hazardous Waste Management
20.15.10 Chemical Safety
20.15.11 Plastic Waste Management
20.15.12 Bio-medical Waste Management
21. Foreign Trade
21.1 Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992
21.2 Trade Policy Reforms
21.3 India’s Exports
21.4 India’s Imports
21.5 India’s Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs)
21.5.1 India’s Look East Policy
21.5.2 South Asia Free Trade Area (SAFTA)
21.5.3 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
21.5.4 India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (ISLFTA)
21.5.5 India-Thailand Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)
21.5.6 Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
21.5.7 India-Singapore Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)
21.5.8 Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA)
21.5.9 India-Chile Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA)
21.5.10 India-South Korea Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA)
21.5.11 India-Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
21.5.12 India-Japan Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)
21.5.13 India-Malaysia Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)
21.5.14 India-Mauritius Comprehensive Economic Cooperation and Partnership Agreement (CECPA)
21.5.15 India-SACU Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) Negotiations
21.5.16 India-Pakistan Trading Arrangement
21.5.17 India-Nepal Treaty of Trade
21.5.18 India-EU Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement
21.5.19 India-European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Negotiations on Broad-based Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement
21.5.20 Global System of Trade Preferences (GSTP)
22. Foreign Investment
22.1 India as an Investment Destination
22.2 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India
22.2.1 FDI Policy Regime
22.2.2 Routes for Inward Flows of FDI
22.2.3 Post-approval Procedures
22.2.4 Entry Options for Foreign Investors
22.2.5 Investment Promotion and Facilitation in India
22.3 Foreign Portfolio Investment
22.3.1 Eligibility for Registration as FII
22.3.2 Restrictions on Foreign Portfolio Investments
Glossary of Select Economic Terms



Dr. Chandra Shekhar Prasad, M.A., Ph.D. in Economics and a distinguished member of Indian Economic Service (IES), superannuated from the service of the Government of India in June 2004 as Additional Development Commissioner and Economic Adviser, Office of DCSSI, Ministry of Small Scale, Agro and Rural Industries (now Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises), Government of India. After retirement from service, Dr. Prasad worked as a consultant to the Government of Mauritius for sometime. As a member of IES, which he joined in 1969, Dr. Prasad worked in various Ministries of the Government of India as researcher, development administrator and economic adviser. These included the Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Small Scale, Agro and Rural Industries, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Defence. Dr. Prasad worked as a Senior Research Officer in the Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi from 1975 to 1981. During his posting in the Ministry of Agriculture (1984 to 1987), he worked in the areas of land use management and soil conservation. During his posting as Professor and Head of the Department of Economics at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie, Dr. Prasad engaged himself in the study of rural development. Widely travelled, Dr. Prasad has authored 4 books and written over a hundred articles in reputed journals and economic dailies. His recent assignment had been as Consultant with the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS), New Delhi, constituted by the Government of India.

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