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Women, Employment and Empowerment
By Tinku Paul Bhatnagar

First Published : 2011
ISBN : 9788177082593
Pages : 206
Binding : Hardbound
Size : 5 x 9
Price : US$ 34

Empowerment of women through gainful employment is a constituent—as well as instrument—of development in any country. No country can be deemed developed if half of its population is severely disadvantaged in terms of basic needs, livelihood options, access to knowledge, and political voice. A natural corollary of ensuring gender equality is the elimination of gender discrimination.

Strong national machineries for the advancement of women and promotion of gender equality require political commitment at the highest level. Reforms to meet the challenges of the changing world are essential to ensure women’s equal access to institutions and organizations.

Effective and coordinated plans and programmes for the full implementation of women-oriented policies require a clear research-based knowledge of ground realities of the socio-economic status of women, particularly rural women.

The realization of the goals of women empowerment needs to be supported by the allocation of necessary human and financial resources for specific and targeted activities to ensure gender equality at the local, regional, national, and international levels as well as by enhanced and increased international cooperation.

The present work is an attempt to unravel the intricate relationship between women’s work and their empowerment. It adopts a holistic approach to explore interface between the nature of work performed by women and indicators of their empowerment.

1. Women Empowerment: Conceptual Framework
1.1 Women in the Development Process
1.2 Empowerment of Women
1.2.1 Overlapping Concepts and Empowerment
1.2.2 Features Characterizing Empowerment
1.3 Macro and Micro Indicators of Empowerment
1.3.1 Macro Approach
1.3.2 Micro Approach
1.4 Difficulties in Measuring the Process of Empowerment
1.5 Summing Up
2. Employment and Empowerment
2.1 On Conceptualizing Empowerment of Women
2.2 Theories on Gender and Labour Market
2.2.1 Liberalism
2.2.2 Economic Nationalism
2.2.3 Family as a Decision Making Unit
2.3 Work Participation and Empowerment: Linkages
3. Work and Work Participation
3.1 Emergence of the Concept of Work
3.2 Meaning of Work Participation in Population Census
3.2.1 Cultivators
3.2.2 Agricultural Labourers
3.2.3 Workers in Household Industry
3.2.4 Other Workers
3.3 Measures of Employment and Unemployment Adopted by NSSO
3.4 Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurship
3.5 Issues of Concerns
4. Trends in Female Work Participation Rates
4.1 Labour Force Participation Rates (LFPRs)
4.2 Distribution of Main and Marginal Workers
4.3 Trends in Female Work Participation
4.4 Age-specific Work Participation during NSSO Rounds
4.5 Category-wise Distribution of Workers
4.6 Need for Redefining Work Participation of Women
4.7 Invisibility of Women’s Work
4.8 Identification of the Hidden Contribution of Work
4.9 Time Allocation for SNA and Non-SNA Work in Developing Countries
5. Government Policies and Programmes for Women Empowerment
5.1 Role of Women in Society
5.2 Gender Equality and Development
5.3 Constitutional Provisions for Women in India
5.4 India’s Commitments to International Conventions on Women Welfare
5.5 Institutional Mechanism for Advancement of Women
5.5.1 Components of Institutional Mechanism
5.5.2 Role of Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)
5.6 Programmes/Schemes of the MWCD
5.6.1 Swayamsiddha
5.6.2 Support for Training and Employment Programme (STEP)
5.6.3 Working Women Hostels and Crèches
5.6.4 Swadhar and Short Stay Homes
5.6.5 Swa-Shakti
5.6.6 Swawlamban Programme
5.6.7 Swadhar
5.6.8 Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme for the Children of Working Mothers
5.7 Autonomous Organisations under MWCD
5.7.1 Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)
5.7.2 Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB)
5.7.3 National Commission for Women (NCW)
5.7.4 National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)
5.8 Protection from Domestic Violence Act and other Acts of the Ministry
5.9 National Policy for Empowerment of Women (NPEW), 2001
5.9.1 Introduction
5.9.2 Objectives of the Policy
5.9.3 Various Elements of NPEW
5.9.4 Operational Strategies of NPEW
Appendix: A Case Study of Female Work Participation in Allahabad District of Uttar Pradesh
Bibliography; Index


Dr. (Mrs.) Tinku Paul Bhatnagar is presently working as a Research Officer at G.B. Pant Social Science Institute (GBPSSI), Jhusi, Allahabad. She obtained Ph.D. degree in Economics from the University of Allahabad in 2007. She has worked as a Principal Researcher for a project on ‘Public Report on the Situational Study of Health in Uttar Pradesh’ sponsored by Centre for Social Development and Funded by International Development Centre, Canada. She has contributed a number of papers to edited books, seminars and conferences on women issues.

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