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Consumer Behaviour and Rural Marketing in India
By Meenu Agrawal

First Published : 2009
ISBN : 9788177082159
Pages : 218
Binding : Hardbound
Size : 5 x 9
Price : US$ 34
ABOUT THE BOOK

The ultimate objective of all production is consumption for the satisfaction of varied needs of man. A free market economy provides freedom to the consumers to buy and consume goods of their choice. Buying preferences of the consumers send signals to the producers to produce various commodities in required quantities. Producers, therefore, produces only those commodities which are desired by the consumers. Consumer behaviour is related to likes and dislikes and expectations of the consumers.

Consumer behaviour has changed in recent years owing to enhanced awareness, information technology and more importantly governmental intervention through legislations.  Thus, the manufacturers are more cautious in dealing with consumers of their respective products.

The rural consumers in India account for about 73 percent of the total consumers. In recent years, the lifestyle of a large number of rural consumers in India has changed dramatically and the process of change is on. The buying behaviour of the rural consumers is influenced by several factors such as socio-economic conditions, cultural environment, literacy level, occupation, geographical location, efforts on the part of sellers, exposure to media etc.

The consumer movement in India till now has been confined to the middle class citizens in urban areas. It has yet to spread among the masses in rural areas. This book is an effort to understand buying behaviour of rural masses which is influenced by a host of diverse factors. The work is useful to understand the Indian rural consumer psyche in order to formulate an appropriate marketing strategy.


CONTENTS
     
1. Emergence of Rural India
1.1 Rural Development in India: Institutional Framework
1.1.1 Ministry of Rural Development
1.1.2 District Rural Development Agency (DRDA)
1.1.3 Council for Advancement of People's Action and Rural Technology (CAPART)
1.1.4 Training of Rural Development Functionaries
1.1.5 Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
1.2 Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)
1.3 Rural Employment
1.3.1 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), 2005
1.3.2 Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
1.3.3 Prime Minister Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP)
1.4 Rural Industries
1.5 Rural Housing
1.5.1 Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)
1.5.2 Rural Housing Activities of Housing Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO)
1.6 Education and Training in Rural Areas
1.6.1 Eleventh Plan Targets and Special Focus Areas
1.7 Rural Health and Family Welfare
1.7.1 National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)
1.7.2 Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)
1.7.3 National Nutrition Mission (NNM)
1.8 Rural Sanitation and Cleanliness
1.8.1 Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)
1.9 Rural Electrification
1.9.1 Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY), 2005
1.10 Rural Water Supply
1.10.1 Swajaldhara
1.11 Rural Transport
1.11.1 Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
1.12 Rural Telephony
1.13 Rural Women Welfare and Empowerment
1.14 Scheduled Caste Sub-plan and Tribal Sub-Plan
1.15 Disability Persons
1.16 Older Persons
1.16.1 National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
1.16.2 Annapurna Scheme
1.17 Bharat Nirman: The Six Components
1.17.1 Electricity
1.17.2 Roads
1.17.3 Drinking Water
1.17.4 Telephones
1.17.5 Irrigation
1.17.6 Housing
 
2. Consumer Behaviour: Theoretical Settings
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Lifestyle of Consumers
2.3 Inter-disciplinary Dimensions of Consumer Behaviour
2.4 Existing Literature on the Subject
 
3. Rural Marketing: Field Surveys
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Concepts Defined
3.2.1 Consumer
3.2.2 Consumption
3.2.3 Consumerism
3.2.4 Consumer Welfare
3.2.5 Consumer Movement
3.2.6 Behaviour
3.2.7 Communication
3.2.8 Market
3.2.9 Rural Market
3.3 Methodological Issues
 
4. Profiles of Sampled Areas
4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Uttar Pradesh
4.1.1 Agriculture
4.1.2 Industry
4.2 Demographic Profile
4.3 Transport and Communication
4.3.1 Transport
4.3 2 Communication
4.4 Employment
4.5 Finances
4.6 Education
4.7 Caste System
4.8 Social Welfare Schemes
4.9 Language
4.10 Social Relations
4.11 Western Uttar Pradesh
4.11.1 Agriculture
4.11.2 Industry
4.11.3 Population
4.11.4 Employment
4.11.5 Transport and Communication
4.11.6 Finance and Earnings
4.11.7 Education
4.12 Ghaziabad District
4.12.1 Sampled Area
 
5. Characteristics of Consumer Behaviour
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Characteristics of Buying Behaviour
5.2.1 Problem of Recognition
5.2.2 Awareness
5.2.3 Understanding
5.2.4 Attitude
5.2.5 Conviction
5.2.6 Trial
5.2.7 Purchase Decision
5.3 Factors Affecting the Consumer Behaviour
5.3.1 Personal Factors
5.3.2 Psychological Factors
5.3.3 Attitudinal Factors
5.3.4 Cultural Factors
5.3.5 Social Factors
5.3.6 Information Factors
5.3.7 Self-image Factors
5.3.8 Marketing and Advertising Factors
5.3.9 Display Factors
5.3.10 Salesmen’s Influence
5.4 Rights of Consumers
5.4.1 Right to Fair Dealing
5.4.2 Right to Satisfactory Quality Goods
5.4.3 Right to Know the Price of the Product or Commodity
5.4.4 Right to Daily Information of the Retail Price of Essential Commodities
5.4.5 Right to Know the Date of Expiry
5.4.6 Right to Have Goods at Fair Prices
5.4.7 Right to Select or Choose
5.4.8 Right of Information
5.4.9 Right to be Heard
5.4.10 Right to be Consulted
5.4.11 Right to Seek Redressal
5.4.12 Right to be Educated
5.4.13 Right to Good Environment
5.5 Problems of Consumers
5.5.1 Adulteration
5.5.2 Short Weights and Measures
5.5.3 Lack of Safety and Quality Control
5.5.4 Unfair Warranties or Guarantees
5.5.5 Imitation Manufacturing
5.5.6 Sales Gimmicks
5.5.7 Conspicuous Consumption
5.5.8 Evil Practices of Multinationals
5.5.9 Massive Profiteering
5.5.10 Sub-standard Quality
5.5.11 Unreasonable Price
 
6. Communications and Rural Marketing Strategies
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Communication Process and its Impact
6.2.1 Advertising
6.2.2 Personal Selling
6.2.3 Publicity and Public Relations
6.3 Rural Marketing Strategy
6.3.1 Lack of Adequate Understanding of Rural Consumer
6.3.2 Inadequate Data on Rural Market
6.3.3 Poor Infrastructure
6.3.4 Low Level of Literacy
6.3.5 Poor Reach of Mass Media in Rural Areas
6.3.6 Producer Marketing Strategy
6.4 Problems in Rural Marketing
 
7. Strategies for Protection of Consumers
7.1 Protection of Consumers
7.2 Administrative and Legislative Measures
7.2.1 Sale of Goods Act, 1930
7.2.2 Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940
7.2.3 Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
7.2.4 Essential Commodities Act, 1955
7.2.5 Trade and Merchandise Mark Act, 1958
7.2.6 Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969
7.2.7 Standards of Weight and Measures Act, 1976
7.2.8 Contract Act, 1982
7.2.9 Consumer Protection Act, 1986
7.2.10 Law of Touts
7.2.11 Information Technology Act, 2000
7.3 Complaints and Grievances
7.4 Consumer Protection Act, 1986
7.4.1 Special Features of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986
7.5 Jurisdiction of the National Commission
7.5.1 Pecuniary Jurisdiction
7.5.2 Territorial Jurisdiction
7.5.3 Revisional Jurisdiction
7.6 Composition of the State Commission
7.7 Jurisdiction of State Commission
7.8 District Forum
7.8.1 Composition of District Forum
7.8.2 Procedure for Selection
7.8.3 Tenure of Members
7.8.4 Jurisdiction of the District Forum
7.8.5 Be Happy Consumer
7.8.6 Redressal of Consumer Grievances
7.8.7 Who Can File Complaint?
7.8.8 Procedure on Receipt of Complaint:
7.8.9 Findings of the District Forum
7.8.10 Relief Available to the Consumers
7.8.11 Appeal
7.9 Role of the Government in Consumer Protection
7.10 Result of Survey of the Study Area
 
8. Conclusions and Suggestions
8.1 Changes in Consumer Behaviour
8.2 Rural Consumers in India
8.3 Study Area
8.4 Role of Communications
8.5 Problems in Rural Marketing
8.6 Consumer Protection in India
8.7 Findings of the Study
8.8 Suggestions
 
Appendix: Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) on Consumer Protection and Competition Policy
 
Index

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
     

Dr. Meenu Agrawal (b. 1963) is Reader and Head, Department of Economics, GDM Girls (PG) College, Modinagar. She obtained her Ph.D. degree from Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut in 1991. She specialises in the areas of rural development, poverty alleviation, and women empowerment. With more than 24 years of teaching experience and 17 years of research experience, she has authored 2 books and co-authored 3 books in areas of her specialisation.

Dr. Agrawal has published 25 research papers in journals/magazines of repute. She has also contributed and presented papers at national and international seminars. She is Director of a Major Research Project sponsored by University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi.


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